경대리아 [889869] · MS 2019 · 쪽지

2019-05-16 04:36:57
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  • epoché · 863038 · 19/05/16 04:38 · MS 2018

    ㅁㅊ군 개토나오는디

  • 경대리아 · 889869 · 19/05/16 04:39 · MS 2019

    셍물교수님이 으대학부시라 학셍들한테 관심가져보라고 이런거 과제내심서 꼬드기는거가튼대 개노잼이에요,,, ^~^...

  • 호앵애앵앵 · 840588 · 19/05/16 05:02 · MS 2018

    저도 요약은 못하구요..오역있을 수는 있으나 어차피 밤샐거 번역은 해드릴 수 있어요...

    [STUDENT:] So if it was just one hemisphere of the brain that became mutated, does that mean during development in the womb, that the two halves of the brain developed differently?
    그럼 만일 뇌의 절반만이 변이되었다면, 그것이 자궁에서 발달할 시기에 뇌의 양쪽 절반이 다르게 발달했다는 것을 의미합니까?

    [DR. WALSH:] Well, the brain starts out as a single tube, actually, a hollow tube with fluid in the middle. And then the brain structure develops sort of as a lining of the tube. And then in the very front end of the brain that forms our cerebral cortex, that tube gets sort of branched almost in a Y fashion. And so the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex get set aside relatively early on. And so that’s how mutations seem to be able to get mostly localized in one half of the brain and not the other. And of course, we don’t know that there’s not a single cell in that other hemisphere that has the mutation in it. Maybe there’s a couple on that side. We don’t formally know that. We just know that it’s not in his blood, but it is in his brain. Yeah.
    글쎄, 사실 뇌는 가운데가 액체로 찬 관으로 시작합니다. 그리고 뇌 structure는 관의 lining처럼 발달합니다. 대뇌겉질을 구성하는 뇌의 제일 앞 부분에서는 그 관이 y모양으로 갈라집니다. 그리고 대뇌겉질의 두 반구(뇌)는 비교적 빨리 분리됩니다. 그게 돌연변이가 뇌의 한 쪽 절반에 주로 분포하는 경향이 있는 듯한 이유입니다. 그리고 당연한 거지만, 우리는 그 돌연변이를 가진 세포가 다른 뇌 반쪽에 없다고 보장할 수는 없습니다. 좀 있을 수도 있겠죠, 우리는 그건 모르지만, 우리의 뇌에만 있는 것입니다(?)

    [STUDENT:] Would there be any connection between hemimegalencephaly and an association with cancer?
    편측거대뇌증과 암과도 연관이 있을까요?

    [DR. WALSH:] So this is an example that I mentioned in the introduction where the AKT3 gene in other cell types, or actually other AKT genes— there’s a family of them—seem like they can become hyperactivated in cells that keep dividing. And it promotes them to keep dividing, and that can contribute to cancer. But in the brain, as I say, even though the gene is hyperactive, nonetheless, the brain still has powerful mechanisms to force cells to stop dividing. And so the gene is still hyperactive even in the post-mitotic cells and seems to mess them up in different ways. And that’s where, without the ability to determine these genes, we wouldn’t have realized that a similar gene or the same gene is doing similar things but in totally different contexts. Yes, in the back there.
    이게 제가 개요에서 설명했던 예시인데, 다른 세포 유형들의 AKT3 유전자나 실제로 다른 AKT 유전자들이 - 그런 family가 있습니다 - 계속 분열하는 세포들에서 활발할 수 있는 것처럼 보이는 겁니다. 그리고 그것은 그 세포들을 계속 분열하도록 하는데, 그것이 암을 유발할 수는 있겠죠. 그러나 뇌에서는 유전자가 활발하더라도, 결과적으로, 뇌는 세포들이 분열을 멈추도록 할 수 있는 강력한 매커니즘이 있습니다. 그래서 그 유전자는 post-mitotic cells에서도 활발하고 그것들을 다양한 방법으로 망가뜨리는 듯 합니다. 그리고 그 시점에서, 그 유전자들을 규명할 능력 없이는, 우리는 비슷하거나 같은 유전자가 완전히 다른 맥락 속에서 비슷한 걸 한다는 걸 알아채지 못했을 겁니다.

    [STUDENT:] Would Dante have problems not only with fine motor skills, but with other things associated with the right side of the brain, such as creativity?
    Dante가 정교한 motor skills뿐만 아니라, 창의력과 같이 우뇌에 연관된 다른 것들에도 문제가 있을까요?

    [DR. WALSH:] That’s a great question, and he certainly would have. And we don’t know, then, how much those activities can get taken over by his remaining left hemisphere. We know, for example, his left leg is ordinarily governed by the right hemisphere that’s removed, but he can walk. And so somehow, the remaining left hemisphere has learned to coordinate the left side of the body. And so some of his other activities are probably taken over by the left hemisphere as well. Hi, the woman there in the red shirt.
    좋은 질문입니다. 그는 명백히 그럴 것입니다. 그리고 우리는 그의 좌뇌가 그 활동의 얼마만큼을 떠맡아 책임질(?) 수 있을지 모릅니다. 예시로, 우리는 지금은 제거된 그의 우뇌에 의해 그의 왼쪽 다리가 지배되는 걸 알지만, 그는 걸을 수 있습니다. 그리고 어떤 식으로, 남은 좌뇌는 좌반신을 조종하는 법을 배웠습니다. 그리고 몇몇 다른 활동들도 그의 좌뇌에 의해 taken over되었을 겁니다. 안녕하세요, 레드 셔츠의 여성분.(이거 강의록인가요...?)

  • 경대리아 · 889869 · 19/05/16 05:04 · MS 2019

    네 강의로 보긴 한시간짜리라 구찮아서 스크립트 내용만 떠듬떠듬 보는데 곶통스럽읍니다....ㅠㅠㅠ

  • 호앵애앵앵 · 840588 · 19/05/16 05:04 · MS 2018

    한시간 동안 쉬지않고 말하나 보네요...무슨.......전 일개 중졸이라 하나도 알아듣지 모탑니다....

  • 경대리아 · 889869 · 19/05/16 05:05 · MS 2019

    30분정도 보고 나서 뒤에 반 가져온게 이정도 양입니다 ㅠㅠ..

  • 경대리아 · 889869 · 19/05/16 05:07 · MS 2019

    그래도 해석 감사합니다 ㅎㅎ

  • 호앵애앵앵 · 840588 · 19/05/16 05:10 · MS 2018

    [STUDENT:] Knowing the genetic basis for hemimegalencephaly, what is the risk for it being inherited, like an inherited disorder?

    [DR. WALSH:] So hemimegalencephaly is a genetic disorder, but it doesn’t seem to be inherited because it doesn’t, … because you can only inherit things it they’re passed through the germ cells, if you have a mutation that gets into the sperm or gets into the eggs. And in his case, it looks like the mutation is present only in brain cells. And so the mutation actually occurred after the germ cells were set aside from the brain cells. So this never runs in families and seems not to be an inherited condition, although it is a genetic condition. And that’s another irony that we’ve learned, you know, relatively recently, that so many diseases that are not inherited still reflect the abnormal sequences of genes. Yeah.


    편측거대뇌증이 유전되면 위험?
    -세균 세포를 통해 전파되는 것들만 유전할 수 있기에 딱히 유전되는 것 같지는 않다
    -그의 케이스에서는, 돌연변이가 뇌세포엔만 있다
    -세균 세포가 뇌세포로부터 분리된?후에 돌연변이가 실제로 발생한 것임.
    -그래서 유전적인 거긴 하지만 가족이 물려받지는 않는다
    =우리가 배운 또다른 아이러니 ; 물려받지 않는 많은 병들도 유전자의 비정상적인 시퀀스를 가진다?

    [STUDENT:] Did you have any ethical concerns with removing one hemisphere of Dante’s brain?

    [DR. WALSH:] Oh, well, obviously you can imagine that the idea of a radical surgery like this is something that families have to grapple with, and every family has their own feeling about it. And you know, even doctors are like, holy cow, you know. But the surgery has been around for probably 15 or 20 years and is being used more frequently rather than less frequently, because it just seems, as desperate as it is, it just seems like the best way out of a very tough situation. Yeah.

    단테의 뇌 반구를 제거하는 것에 있어서 윤리적인 걱정은 없는가?
    -물론 이런 급진적인 수술은 가족들이 싸우는 것이고, 모든 가족은 각각의 입장 있다
    -의사들도 아이고 세상에 하는 것
    -그러나 이 수술은 15~20년 되었고 요즘은 꽤나 자주쓰이는데, 엄청나게 힘든 상황에서는 최선이기 때문이다.

  • 경대리아 · 889869 · 19/05/16 05:11 · MS 2019

  • 호앵애앵앵 · 840588 · 19/05/16 05:20 · MS 2018

    [STUDENT:] Has there been any like, artificial protein regulators that people are studying so that it can act like a competitive inhibition to prevent the hyperactive cells from actively engaging in mitosis?

    [DR. WALSH:] Well, so that’s a great question. So this particular AKT3 is a gene against which, in the cancer field, medicines have been developed that actually damp down that pathway in the context of cancer. And so we’re actually optimistic that some of those drugs might help kids that have this condition. We don’t know if it’s going to spare them the surgery or not. But it’s something that at least we’re now looking at ways to try.

    hyperactive한 세포들이 세포분열에 활발히 관여하는 것을 막는 역할로 작용되는, 사람들이 연구하는 인공적인 단백질 조정기가 있었는가?

    -AKT3은 암의 맥락에서 그 퇴로를 차단하는 치료약이 개발된 유전자
    -그런 약들이 이런 상태의 아이들을 도울 거라고 긍정적으로 봄
    -수술을 하지 않아도 될지는 모르겠으나 어쨌든 시도할 방법을 찾는 것임.

    I wish I could take more questions, but I think I’ll have to move on at this point. I’ve told you about a developmental disorder where the brain fails to achieve its normal size and ends up too big because it gets too much of a push when the stem cells are dividing. And I just want to return to this slide that shows, that illustrates that these tremendous genetic tools have allowed many labs to understand a lot of these developmental disorders over the last several years. And in the second half of the talk, I’ll tell you about a different disorder, a complementary disorder. I’ll tell you a little bit more about disorders where the brain ends up too small, and that’s a condition known as microcephaly. And that’s illustrated by the small brains in the lower left corner and in the middle of the left where I put that box around it. I mentioned microcephaly briefly. It’s defined as a small head, actually. That’s why if any of you remember when you went to your pediatrician’s office, they put a tape measure right around your head as though they were measuring you for a hat. What they’re actually doing is they’re measuring your brain because our head is basically a carrying case for our brain. That’s the way we brain-centric neurologists like to think about it. And in fact, you can get a pretty good idea of how big a kid’s brain is by just putting a tape measure around the outside of their head.

    줄기세포가 분열할때 push를 너무 받아서 뇌가 정상적인 크기를 벗어나 거대해지는 발달적 장애
    -이런 유전자적 도구들이 많은 랩에서 최근 몇 년동안 많은 발달장애를 이해하게 도와줌

    상호보완적인 장애 - 너무 작은 뇌(소뇌증)
    -소아과에서 머리둘레를 재는 이유 - 머리는 뇌의 보관 케이스니까.(우리같은 뇌신경학자들은 이렇게 생각하는 걸 좋아함)

    And so this is a genetic condition. There are many different genes that cause it. And so that is what sometimes makes it a little difficult to find any one of the genes because there are so many different genes that can cause this condition. As you might imagine, with the brain being small, these children are lacking many of the neurons that they would normally have. And so they typically show intellectual disability. They don’t usually have seizures. Even though they don’t have enough neurons, the neurons that they have look like they work pretty well, so kids can typically learn to walk. They’ll have limited language. But they’ll be, as I said, somewhat limited in their cognitive capabilities. So most forms of microcephaly are not dominant mutations. They’re, in fact, recessive mutations, where you only get the disease if you disable both of the two copies of the gene that you carry, because we carry two copies of most of our genes that are on our autosomal chromosomes. And so these conditions are usually not spontaneous. They’re in fact usually inherited. And usually, the mutations occurred hundreds or thousands of years ago and are carried in a silent way in the population. And when two people who unknowingly carry the same recessive mutation have children together, they will have affected children.

    그래서 이것은 유전적임. 많은 유전자들이 관여함=가끔은 너무 많아서 어떤 유전자를 찾기도 힘듦

    뇌가 작으면 뉴런 부족으로 지적 능력 떨어짐 / 발작은 없음 / 걸을 수는 있음 / 언어 한계는 인지적 한계
    소뇌증의 대부분은 지배적인 돌연변이가 아님. 오히려 열성의 돌연변이 - 두 유전자 모두 문제가 있어야 병에 걸림
    저절로 일어나지 않고 유전적임
    자기들도 모르는 채로 이런 열성의 돌연변이를 가지는 두 사람이 애를 만들면 애가 영향받는다

  • 경대리아 · 889869 · 19/05/16 05:22 · MS 2019

    감사합니다!!!!ㅎㅎ